Forum on China-Africa Cooperation Dakar Action Plan (2022-2024)

The 8th Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) was held in Dakar, Senegal, from November 29th to 30th 2021. The Conference adopted Forum on China-Africa Cooperation Dakar Action Plan (2022-2024) on 30th. FULL TEXT:

Table of Contents

1. Preamble

2. Political Cooperation

2.1 High-level Visits and Dialogue

2.2 Exchanges Between Political Parties, Legislatures, Consultative Bodies and Local Governments

2.3 China, the African Union and Africa’s Sub-regional Organizations

2.4 International Cooperation

3. Economic Cooperation

3.1 Agriculture, Food Security and Food Safety

3.2 Infrastructure Development

3.3 Industrial Partnership and Production Capacity Cooperation

3.4 Investment and Economic Cooperation

3.5 Trade

3.6 Customs and Market Supervision

3.7 Digital Economy

3.8 Finance

4. Social Development Cooperation

4.1 Development Cooperation

4.2 Medical Care and Public Health

4.3 Education and Human Resources

4.4 Cooperation and Exchanges on Poverty Reduction and Rural Development

4.5 Science and Technology Cooperation and Knowledge Sharing

4.6 Cyber Security Cooperation

5. Cultural and People-to-People Exchanges

5.1 Tourism

5.2 Culture

5.3 Press and Media

5.4 Academia and Think Tanks

5.5 Sub-national and People-to-People Exchanges

5.6 Youth and Women

6. Peace and Security Cooperation

6.1 Military, Police, Counter-terrorism and Law Enforcement

6.2 Anti-corruption, Consular Affairs, Immigration and Judiciary

7. Green Development

7.1 Ecological Protection and Climate Response

7.2 Maritime Cooperation

7.3 Cooperation on Energy and Natural Resources

8. Experience Sharing on State Governance

9. FOCAC Institutional Development

1. Preamble

1.1 The 8th Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) was held in Dakar from November 29th to 30th 2021. The Heads of Delegation of China and the Heads of Delegation of 53 African countries and the Chairperson of the African Union Commission (hereinafter referred to as “the two sides”) attended the Conference.

1.2 The two sides commend the development of relations between China and Africa, and believe that over the past 21 years since its inception, the Forum has strongly promoted the development of relations between China and Africa, and become an important benchmark for international cooperation with Africa.

1.3 The two sides are satisfied with the effective implementation of the eight major initiatives launched during the 2018 Beijing Summit, and will continue to pursue the vision of innovative, coordinated, green and open development for all, promote high-quality China-Africa cooperation, and work in concert to defeat COVID-19 and advance post-pandemic economic recovery.

1.4 The two sides acknowledge that China, the largest developing country, has achieved the goal of building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects and is striving to realize its second centenary goal and the Chinese dream of national rejuvenation, and that African countries are endeavoring to build an integrated, prosperous and peaceful continent. China and Africa are committed to further enhancing their comprehensive strategic and cooperative partnership and building an even stronger China-Africa community with a shared future.

1.5 The two sides undertake to create synergy between the China-Africa Cooperation Vision 2035,  the Long-Range Goals for 2035 of China, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of the United Nations, and the Agenda 2063 of the African Union, thus drawing a long-term blueprint for China-Africa practical cooperation. China and Africa will make joint efforts to turn the vision into reality.

1.6 Africa supports the Global Development Initiative proposed by China. African countries will favorably consider joining the initiative and make joint efforts to accelerate the global implementation of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

1.7 China welcomes African countries joining the big family of Belt and Road cooperation. China and Africa will continue to uphold the principle of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, follow the philosophy of open, green and clean cooperation, and advance high-standard, people-centered and sustainable Belt and Road cooperation.

1.8 To implement the outcomes of the Conference, and chart the course of China-Africa friendly and mutually beneficial cooperation in various fields in the next three and even more years under the theme of “Deepening the Sino-African Partnership and Promoting Sustainable Development to Build a China-Africa Community with a Shared Future in the New Era”, the two sides jointly formulated and adopted by consensus this Action Plan.

1.9 China and Africa will work closely to further upgrade and improve the quality of China-Africa cooperation. To this end, the two sides will implement the nine programs, namely the  the medical and health program, the poverty reduction and agricultural development program, the trade promotion program, the investment promotion program, the digital innovation program, the green development program, the capacity building program, the cultural and people-to-people exchange program, and the peace and security program. Relevant content will be reflected in the following articles of this Action Plan.

2. Political Cooperation

2.1 High-level Visits and Dialogue

2.1.1 The two sides will maintain close high-level exchanges to deepen traditional friendship, enhance political mutual trust, strengthen strategic coordination and cement the political foundation of China-Africa relations. China appreciates African leaders’ warm congratulations on the centenary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), and commends African leaders for attending the CPC and World Political Parties Summit.

2.1.2 The two sides will deepen experience sharing on state governance. China supports African countries in independently exploring development paths suited to their national conditions, and supports their efforts in formulating national development strategies, strengthening governing capacity and improving state governance. China and Africa will continue to share development experience, and enhance coordination of development philosophies and ideas in the process of cooperation.

2.1.3 To improve the planning and implementation of strategies regarding China-Africa relations and cooperation, the two sides agree to improve mechanisms such as the Bi-National Commissions (BNC), the intergovernmental commissions, the strategic dialogues, the foreign ministries’ political consultations, the joint/mixed commissions on economic and trade cooperation as well as joint working groups, and the steering committees. The two sides agree to hold a coordinators’ meeting on the implementation of the outcomes of the FOCAC Dakar Conference in due course.

2.2 Exchanges Between Political Parties, Legislatures, Consultative Bodies and Local Governments

2.2.1 The two sides will further strengthen high-level exchanges between Chinese and African political parties, improve bilateral and multilateral political dialogues such as the China-Africa Political Parties Theoretical Seminar, and deepen experience sharing and mutual learning on state governance.

2.2.2 The two sides will strengthen exchanges and cooperation between the leadership, special committees, and bilateral friendship groups of the National People’s Congress of China and parliaments of African countries to enhance mutual understanding and friendship and promote exchanges and mutual learning in such areas as legislation.

2.2.3 The two sides will encourage the National People’s Congress of China and parliaments of African countries to jointly hold bilateral and multilateral seminars, strengthen human resources cooperation, and promote capacity building of legislative bodies.

2.2.4 The National People’s Congress of China will strengthen friendly engagements with African regional parliament organizations, including the Pan-African Parliament and the African Parliamentary Union, and work closer with African parliaments in the Inter-Parliamentary Union and other multilateral institutions, so as to safeguard common interests and international fairness and justice.

2.2.5 The two sides will expand and strengthen exchanges and cooperation between the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) and parliaments of African countries, sub-regional parliaments of Africa, the Pan-African Parliament and the African Parliamentary Union.

2.2.6 The two sides will promote exchanges between the China-Africa Friendship Group of the National Committee of the CPPCC and relevant institutions and friendly personages in various organizations of African countries, the African Union and African regional organizations.

2.2.7 The two sides will deepen exchanges between the China Economic and Social Council and the AU Economic, Social and Cultural Council (ECOSCOCC), economic and social councils of African countries and other relevant institutions.

2.2.8 The two sides will further strengthen exchanges between local governments, encourage the establishment of more sister provinces/cities relations, improve the mechanism of China-Africa Forum on Cooperation Between Local Governments, and promote deeper and more concrete China-Africa sub-national cooperation.

2.3 China, the African Union and Africa’s Sub-regional Organizations

2.3.1 The two sides recognize the important role of the African Union in safeguarding peace and stability and promoting the integration of Africa. China commends the new progress made by Africa in seeking strength through unity, and notes the important results achieved in the institutional reform of the African Union. The African side appreciates China’s efforts and contributions in promoting peace, stability and development in Africa.

2.3.2 The two sides agree to consolidate and strengthen China’s cooperation with the African Union and its affiliated institutions and Africa’s sub-regional organizations, to continue holding the China-African Union Strategic Dialogue, and to strengthen communication and coordination between China and Africa’s sub-regional organizations, so that China-Africa transnational and trans-regional cooperation will deliver more outcomes.

2.3.3 The African side commends China for supporting the African Union and Africa’s sub-regional organizations in upgrading public service facilities, improving office conditions and enhancing public service capacity. China will continue to support the capacity building of the African Union and Africa’s sub-regional organizations.

2.3.4 China notes with appreciation that the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) has entered the implementation stage, and will set up an expert group on economic cooperation with the secretariat of the AfCFTA, and continue to support the development of the free trade area and the Secretariat of the AfCFTA .

2.4 International Cooperation

2.4.1 China and Africa are of the view that the world is undergoing profound changes unseen in a century and has entered a period of turbulence and transformation, while the COVID-19 pandemic accelerates the evolution of the international landscape. At the same time, peace, development and win-win cooperation remain the trend of our times, and countries are increasingly interconnected and interdependent. The two sides are committed to building a community with a shared future for mankind, to building an open, inclusive, clean and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security and common prosperity, to fostering a new type of international relations featuring mutual respect, fairness, justice and win-win cooperation, and to safeguarding the common interests of the Chinese and African people.

2.4.2 The two sides will continue to support each other in international affairs and major international elections. The two sides reaffirm their commitment to upholding the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, the authority of the UN and true multilateralism. The two sides will continue to step up coordination and collaboration at the United Nations and other multilateral institutions, strengthen cooperation in such areas as maintaining peace and security and promoting sustainable development, push the international order toward greater equity and justice, and act on the common values of humanity, namely peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy and freedom.

2.4.3 The two sides are committed to strengthening cooperation in the field of human rights, to jointly opposing politicization of human rights issues or interfering in others’ internal affairs as prescribed in the UN Charter , and to promoting the healthy development of the international cause of human rights.

2.4.4 The two sides emphasize that tracing the origins of COVID-19 is a serious scientific issue that should be carried out cooperatively by scientists across the world. The two sides firmly oppose politicizing origins-tracing or using the issue as a tool to stigmatize others. The African side commends China’s active participation in global origins-tracing research, especially its close cooperation with the WHO, and welcomes the Joint Report of the WHO-convened Global Study of Origins of SARS-CoV-2: China Part released by the WHO in March 2021.

2.4.5 The two sides stress that it is important to carry out more extensive and in-depth research on origins-tracing at a global level on the basis of the conclusions and recommendations of the report, in accordance with the relevant resolution of the World Health Assembly, and through close cooperation of parties concerned, so as to provide safeguards for mankind to completely defeat the pandemic and forestall future risks.

2.4.6 The two sides are committed to promoting the sustained and sound development of the Olympic Movement, and oppose the politicization of sports. The African side supports China in hosting the Beijing 2022 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games and is ready to strengthen cooperation and exchanges with China in the field of sports.

2.4.7 China actively supports African countries in implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and is prepared to use the China-UN Peace and Development Trust Fund and the South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund to support African countries in pursuing sustainable development.

2.4.8 China will stay in close communication with African countries under the frameworks of the Group of 77 plus China, the United Nations Economic and Social Council as well as the Second Committee of the United Nations General Assembly, and maintain coordination and cooperation in areas such as poverty reduction, food security, COVID response and vaccines, climate change and green development, connectivity, digital economy, industrialization, and financing for development, so as to safeguard the common interests of developing countries.

2.4.9 The two sides believe that Africa is a major partner for international cooperation, not an arena for big power rivalry. They call on more countries and organizations, especially Africa’s traditional partners, to join the Initiative on Partnership for Africa’s Development launched by China and some African countries, with a view to creating effective synergy among the international community to enhance Africa’s quest for sustainable development. On the basis of mutual partnership, China is prepared to conduct third-party and multi-party cooperation with relevant sides.

2.4.10 China and Africa will work together to uphold the multilateral trading system with the WTO at its core and foster an open world economy. They support necessary reform of the WTO and greater liberalization and facilitation of international trade and investment to better safeguard the development rights and interests of developing countries and their space for development. They call for an early resumption of normal functioning of WTO’s dispute settlement mechanism and efforts to increase the authority and effectiveness of the multilateral trading system.

3. Economic Cooperation

3.1 Agriculture, Food Security and Food Safety

3.1.1 The two sides will give full play to the China-Africa agricultural cooperation mechanism, hold the second Forum on China-Africa Cooperation in Agriculture, and convene the first meeting of the China-AU Joint Committee on Agricultural Cooperation, to innovate cooperation methods, enrich the content of cooperation, and ensure the effective implementation of agricultural cooperation in fields of shared interest.

3.1.2 The two sides will further strengthen food security cooperation by giving full play to the China-AU coordination mechanism for Belt and Road cooperation and making good use of the South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund. The two sides will launch trials in such areas as reduction of post-harvest grain loss in light of the AU’s needs and China’s strengths, in order to support African countries to improve their food supply capacity with existing production capabilities.

3.1.3 The two sides will support leveraging the various economic and trade cooperation zones in Africa to advance cooperation across the whole industrial chain of agro-products, covering planting, processing and selling, so as to jointly enhance Africa’s capacity for localized processing of agro-products and increase the added value of agro-products. The two sides will work to improve the conditions of roads linking urban and rural areas, small water management and irrigation facilities in villages and townships, food storage and basic processing facilities, renewable energy power facilities, and small agricultural mechanization equipment in African countries.

3.1.4 China will continue to strengthen cooperation and exchanges with Africa in fishery and support promoting the development of the fishery industry of Africa to the best of its ability. The African side will introduce policies that are more conducive to China-Africa fishery cooperation to attract more investment from China and deliver mutually beneficial outcomes through cooperation.

3.1.5 China will actively expand the import of quality speciality agri-food products from Africa and open “green lanes” for African agricultural exports to China, speed up the inspection and quarantine procedures. The two sides will continue to step up collaboration in building a China-Africa Incubation Center for E-commerce in Agricultural Products. The two sides will better facilitate connections between Chinese and African agricultural enterprises and smooth out the channels for agricultural trade and investment, further expand bilateral trade of quality agricultural products as well as the types and scale of investment and support the efforts of Chinese businesses to invest in and build agricultural industrial parks in Africa.

3.1.6 The two sides will give full play to the agricultural technology demonstration centers already established in Africa to strengthen personnel training and exchanges as well as agricultural technology trials and demonstrations, and speed up the integrated application of technological outcomes suited to the agricultural conditions of African countries. The two sides will conduct cooperation on the development and utilization of Juncao, hybrid rice, hybrid millet and other technologies.

3.1.7 China will sign a memorandum of understanding with the African Development Bank (AfDB) in order to share China’s experience in agro-products processing with African countries through the platform of AfDB and provide technological support for agro-products processing zones in Africa.

3.1.8 China will send 500 agricultural experts to African countries to carry out plan making, policy consultation, technical demonstration, on-site teaching and capacity training. China will support the development of peasants’ schools and hold thematic skill training sessions for African rural development leaders in China, in order to support Africa to train local leaders of rural development and foster a talent pool for Africa’s agricultural and rural development. China will continue to implement the plan for cultivating African young pioneers in agricultural scientific research, and set up a number of China-Africa joint centers for modern agrotechnology exchange, demonstration and training in China.

3.1.9 The two sides will strengthen science and technology cooperation in areas such as sustainable agriculture, water-saving irrigation, grain loss reduction, and climate response in agriculture, and establish a China-Africa seed technology research and innovation platform and a joint research center for digital agriculture. China will invite African experts and scientific research personnel to China to receive education with academic degrees or engage in cooperative research programs, and support African countries to build up capacity in agricultural production technology and quarantine inspection of agro-products, in order to support Africa to improve its composite agricultural production capacity and better manage food security challenges in the post-pandemic era.

3.1.10 China will support market-based investment in Africa’s agricultural industry, support African countries in enhancing their capacity for independent agricultural development, and invest in grain and cash crop production projects in such forms as greenfield investment, equity participation, mergers and acquisitions, and leasing, in order to extend the scope of Chinese agricultural investment in Africa from planting to warehousing, logistics, processing, and international trade.

3.1.11 The African side commends China for providing the emergency food aid and assistance to some African countries affected by the locust plague, which reduced the food security pressure and alleviated the humanitarian crisis in these countries. China will continue to provide emergency humanitarian food assistance to African countries.

3.2 Infrastructure Development

3.2.1 Africa applauds China’s partnership and cooperation in Africa’s infrastructural development. Both sides note the persistent infrastructural gap in Africa and pledge to resolve the problem by encouraging and promoting innovative and favorable Chinese financial  support in infrastructural projects in Africa over the next three years.The two sides, where applicable, will prioritize to create synergy between China-Africa infrastructural cooperation with the second Priority Action Plan of the programme in Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA-PAPII) and the Presidential Infrastructure Championing Initiative (PICI). The two sides will step up mutually beneficial cooperation in the planning, design, construction, operation, maintenance and good governance of infrastructure projects, in order to support African countries to continuously improve infrastructure. 

3.2.2. China will continue to contribute to Africa’s infrastructure development following the principle of extensive consultation, joint contribution, shared benefits, no-harm and harmony, and support Chinese enterprises in contributing to the improvement and development of Africa’s infrastructure with advanced equipment, technologies, standards and services, promoting connectivity and providing innovative financing. China will undertake 10 connectivity assistance projects for Africa.

3.2.3 China and Africa will encourage Chinese enterprises to, through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) and trilateral and multilateral cooperation, conduct connectivity and other projects in Africa, including those linked to the lntegrated High Speed Train Network, the Single African Air-Transport Market (SAATM), the Pan-African E-network and Cyber Security.

3.2.4 The two sides will explore promoting alignment and mutual recognition of green and sustainable development standards under the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), give full play to the BRI International Green Development Coalition to enhance cooperation in green technology research and energy-efficient buildings and facilities.

3.2.5 China encourages and supports competent Chinese enterprises to invest in African ports, airports and airlines. The African side welcomes such investment. Both sides support Chinese and African airlines and shipping companies in opening more flights and shipping services connecting China and Africa.

3.2.6 China encourages Chinese enterprises to use joint ventures with African partners, employ more local workers at all levels and use more local materials and manufactured products during the development and execution of infrastructure projects.

3.2.7 Both sides will deepen their commitment to increase the training of African professionals – including women – in all the domains that fall under infrastructure connectivity initiative in Africa, including the development and management of construction projects, the construction and operation of power projects, management of High Speed Train Networks, shipping, investment projects and finance resource management.

3.2.8 China supports Africa in developing the Single African Air Transport Market. The two sides will support each other in realizing the targets set for aviation market access, actively study the feasibility of concluding an agreement, and enhance cooperation in aviation market access.

3.2.9 China and Africa commit to further strengthening and expanding the civil aviation market in both Africa and China through market reforms, the transfer of aviation technology, capacity building and reiterates the proposal for the construction of an Africa-China civil aviation Academy in Africa, to meet ICAO standards and follow ICAO’s recommended practices, with a view to jointly advancing Africa’s regional aviation development.

3.2.10 The two sides will, in recognition of the strategic and far-reaching impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on economic and social development, enhance exchanges and cooperation, encourage and support their companies in participating and partnering in the building of ICT infrastructure including the optical fiber cable backbone network, cross-border connectivity, international undersea cable, new-generation mobile network, and data center, and carry out mutually beneficial cooperation in infrastructure construction, operation and services.

3.2.11 The two sides will deepen cooperation in the field of logistics, and harness modern ICT and enhance logistic information sharing, so as to jointly build African logistic infrastructure, and provide stable and smooth logistics services for China-Africa trade. The two sides will strengthen information exchange and technological cooperation, promote alignment of transportation infrastructure standards and mutual recognition of transport technologies and professional qualifications of management personnel.

3.2.12 The two sides recognize that global coordination and integration of radio frequency and satellite orbit resources are conducive to the in-depth information technology cooperation and the global development of relevant industries. Under the framework of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the two sides will enhance communication and cooperation in the field of radio spectrum management and actively coordinate their positions on topics of mutual interest in the World Radio communication Conference (WRC).

3.3 Industrial Partnership and Production Capacity Cooperation

3.3.1 Building on the industrial promotion initiative launched in 2018, and the China-Africa industrial plan and agricultural modernization plans launched in 2015, as well as from the African side the newly launched AfCFTA, the African Union’s continental ten-year plan frameworks in particular the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), Africa Mining Vision (AMV) and Accelerated lndustrial Development for Africa (AIDA), China reiterates its commitment to seeing inclusive growth in Africa to achieve its aspiration to become the world’s third largest economy by 2063.

3.3.2 The two sides will make best use of industrial capacity cooperation mechanisms, continue to improve the cooperation mechanism featuring enterprises as the mainstay, market operation and government guidance, and draw on the complementarity of their development needs to promote upgrading of China-Africa cooperation projects to realize cluster, scale, industrialized and localized development, thus leveling up the productive capacity of African countries. China will undertake 10 industrialization and employment promotion assistance projects for Africa.

3.3.3 The two sides will take into account African countries’ disparity in natural endowments and industrial development levels, enhance production capacity cooperation in light of local realities in such fields of resource-intensive sectors (e.g., food, drink, tobacco, timber, building materials), labor-intensive sectors (e.g., textile, garment, leather, metal), technology- or capital-intensive sectors (e.g., pharmaceutical, chemical, automobile, machinery, equipment manufacturing, electronic, science and technology), and encourage enterprises to explore extending to emerging areas such as modern services, new energy development, green manufacturing, and information and communication sectors.

3.3.4 The two sides will continue to support Chinese enterprises in increasing investments in medium and high-technology manufacturing, energy and electricity, digital infrastructure development, digital economy and aviation and aerospace sectors, to help add to African countries’ foreign exchange reserves, facilitate technology transfer, remove supply chain bottlenecks and create more opportunities for diversified economic development of African countries.

3.3.5 The two sides will continue to support expansion of industrial chains in the mining industry, increase investment in smelt, processing and other upstream and downstream sectors of mining industry as well as electricity, transportation and other supporting infrastructure, launch mineral processing projects in African countries, and build resource-development cooperation zones to promote local industrial development and support translating resource endowments into advantages of economic development.

3.3.6 The two sides appreciate the role of economic cooperation zones in galvanizing and boosting industrial development, and will actively support its construction and development, and provide service and guidance for building and upgrading economic cooperation zones in Africa. China supports upgrading of economic cooperation zones in Africa to China-Africa demonstration areas for industrial and supply chains cooperation, and will continue to encourage Chinese enterprises to actively engage in construction, operation, and investment of economic and trade cooperation zones in Africa.

3.3.7 The two sides support enhancing policy guidance and information services to small and medium-sized enterprises, and encourage them to strengthen complementarity and carry out exchanges in transformation and upgrading of traditional manufacturing, inter-regional coordination and cooperation, and other areas. China would like to invite enterprises organized by African countries to international exhibitions including the China Small and Medium Enterprises Fair, to jointly promote exchanges and cooperation of enterprises from both sides.

3.3.8 The two sides agree to leverage a bigger role of the Corporate Social Responsibility Alliance of Chinese Companies in Africa to encourage Chinese enterprises to actively fulfill social responsibilities over community development, localized management, environmental protection, energy conservation and emission reduction, and public services. China encourages Chinese enterprises in Africa to level up localization and generate more job opportunities for the local people.

3.3.9 The two sides support more exchanges on the reform and development of state-owned assets and enterprises. The two sides will enhance experience sharing in state-owned assets regulation and management, encourage exploration and adoption of SOE reform path suited to the country’s development strategy and reality, and promote improvement of the management mechanism of state-owned enterprises to raise operational efficiency and better serve the needs of socio-economic development and people’s needs for a better life.

3.4 Investment and Economic Cooperation

3.4.1 The African side appreciates the important role of Chinese investments in boosting Africa’s industrial development and supporting Africa’s deeper integration into global and regional industrial and value chains. China will continue to encourage and support two-way investment. Both sides will continue to improve investment and cooperation mechanisms, strive to reduce investment barriers, and work together for the conclusion and upgrading of bilateral investment protection treaties, to deliver more favorable investment environment for both sides.

3.4.2 China will encourage its businesses to invest no less than 10 billion US dollars in Africa in the next three years and, in particular, expand investment in areas including manufacturing, agriculture, green economy and digital economy.

3.4.3 The two sides will make good use of China’s initiatives on cooperation with Africa and all relevant tools, fully leverage the role of the Investing in Africa Forum to enhance the sharing of development experience, and step up cooperation in production capacity, trade and investment. The two sides will share information about investment policies and opportunities, laws and regulations, economic development and cooperation areas. The two sides will give further play to the role of the Investing in Africa Think Tank Union in providing intellectual support to improve Africa’s investment environment and attract more investment in sectors of mutual interest.

3.4.4 China will establish a platform for China-Africa private investment promotion, and encourage Chinese businesses to invest in Africa, in the logistics and manufacturing sectors of existing and new free trade zones, industrial parks, and green industrial parks in particular, so as to help increase trade within Africa and Africa’s external trade including exports to the Chinese market, and to create a large number of jobs for African youths, including women.

3.4.5  China and Africa will also encourage the China-Africa Development Fund and the China- Africa Fund for Industrial Cooperation to support Chinese companies to invest  in African  firms and projects including  Public Private Partnerships (PPPs).

3.4.6 Both sides will continue their practical cooperation in taxation. China will support African countries in improving tax collection and administration capacity through technology support and personnel training. Both sides will continue to negotiate, conclude and implement agreements on the avoidance of double taxation and resolve cross-border tax-related disputes, so as to create a favourable taxation environment for China-Africa trade and investment.

3.4.7 China will publish the Report on Chinese Investment in Africa on a regular basis, to release economic and trade data, analyze investment cases, review experience of China-Africa investment cooperation and put forward proposals for future cooperation, as a way to encourage Chinese enterprises to increase investment in Africa and support independent and sustainable development of Africa.

3.5 Trade

3.5.1 China supports African countries in promoting African products at such events as the China International Import Expo and the China Import and Export Fair, and will provide preferential and facilitating measures where necessary. China welcomes African countries’ efforts in holding trade promotion activities in China or online and support Africa in increasing its export to China.

3.5.2 The two sides attach importance to the role of the China-Africa Economic and Trade Expo as a national-level, comprehensive and international platform for cooperation and therefore will consider holding various trade events of the Expo in Africa. Both sides will pool the strengths of central and local governments, think tanks, enterprises, financial institutions, chambers of commerce, associations and other relevant parties to jointly promote the high-quality development of China-Africa practical cooperation.

3.5.3 China will provide 10 billion US dollars of trade finance to support African export, and build in China a pioneering zone for in-depth China-Africa trade and economic cooperation and a China-Africa industrial park for Belt and Road cooperation.

3.5.4 China and Africa agree to improve the competitiveness of African agricultural products,and will facilitate and expedite the entry of small scale agricultural producers into formal processing, marketing and distribution networks.

3.5.5 China and Africa will jointly study the possibility of establishing cooperation mechanisms including e-commerce, to actively promote trade facilitation,  jointly advance paperless cross-border trade, promote expediting and simplifying processes for African agro-products to China through e-commerce, and promote unimpeded trade.

3.5.6 China will further expand the scope of duty-free products from LDCs with diplomatic relations with China and will continue to hold discussions with the African side on promoting China-Africa trade, in a bid to reach 300 billion US dollars in total imports from Africa in the next three years. 

3.5.7 Both Sides encourage the launching of a process to increase the value in China of processed and manufactured African goods through the recognition of African geographical indications.

3.5.8 The two side will explore the possibility of establishing e-commerce hubs in Africa dedicated to African exports to China.

3.5.9 Both sides support developing marine-rail-combined transportation such as the “Sichuan-Europe-Africa Service”, to create new trade corridors for China-Africa international land and maritime logistics and trade, and level up two-way trade and logistics cooperation.

3.6 Customs and Market Supervision

3.6.1 China will strengthen communication and cooperation with African countries and the AU on competition policy, antitrust and preventing unfair competition, and set up bilateral and multilateral dialogue mechanisms on antitrust and prevention of unfair competition, to create an open, fair, just and non-discriminatory business environment for the high-quality common development of China and Africa.

3.6.2 The two sides will enhance exchanges and cooperation in the area of metrology, including weight, length and time frequency, to promote metrological policy and technology communication and technical exchanges, and strengthen mutual support and cooperation in international organizations concerning metrology.

3.6.3 The two sides are ready to enhance exchanges and cooperation on standardization, to promote the standardization capacity of African countries. The role of standard in “soft connectivity” will be leveraged in support of China-Africa trade.

3.6.4 The two sides will enhance information exchange in qualification assessment, increase transparency of policies and regulations, promote the establishment of cooperation mechanisms for qualification assessment, and enhance mutual recognition of qualification assessment results, to reduce the impact of technical trade measures on China-Africa trade.

3.6.5 China will actively provide capacity-building support for African countries in areas such as animal and plant quarantine, import and export food safety, and frontier health quarantine, to deepen cooperation in animal and plant quarantine and food safety, and help accelerate the development of trade in agricultural and food products including soybean, beef, nut, coffee, cocoa, and wine.

3.6.6 The two sides will continue to strengthen exchanges and cooperation between customs authorities. China will support African countries in improving customs management and modernization, expand cooperation with African customs authorities in areas of clearance facilitation, law enforcement and capacity building, and combat illegal and criminal activities including counterfeiting, the smuggling and illegal trafficking of items of cultural heritage and wildlife, infringement and business fraud, to promote the sound and smooth development of China-Africa trade.

3.7 Digital Economy

3.7.1 The two sides, recognizing the strategic and overarching impact of ICT on social and economic development aimed at poverty reduction, will enhance exchanges and cooperation between competent departments, share ICT development experience, jointly seize the opportunity of digital economy, and encourage cooperation between enterprises in such fields as ICT infrastructure, internet and digital economy.

3.7.2 The African side supports the Initiative on Jointly Building a China-Africa Community with a Shared Future in Cyberspace proposed by China. The two sides will formulate and implement the “China-Africa Digital Innovation Partnership Program”, actively discuss and promote cooperation on the application of emerging technologies such as in the fields of cloud computing, big data, artificial intelligence, internet of things, and mobile internet. China is ready to share experience with African countries on the building of smart cities.

3.7.3 China will undertake 10 digital economy assistance projects for Africa, support the development of African digital infrastructure, and continue to hold the China-Africa Digital Cooperation Forum and the China-Africa BDS Cooperation Forum.

3.7.4 China will work with Africa to improve the China-Africa technology transfer and innovation cooperation network, hold the China-Africa innovation cooperation and development forum, and support the development of China-Africa joint laboratories, partner institutes, and scientific and technological innovation cooperation bases.

3.7.5 China is ready to enhance communication and exchanges with governments of African countries and organizations like “Smart Africa”, to boost the innovative development of digital technology in Africa and China-Africa digital cooperation. The two sides will enhance cooperation in the ITU, WRC and other international organizations, and promote coordination on personnel training, internet connectivity, and innovation center building, among others. The two sides will carry out strategic consultation on ICT policies and development, to make joint efforts to narrow down the digital gap for Africa and promote the building of information society in Africa.

3.7.6 China will work with African countries to expand Silk Road e-commerce cooperation, jointly formulate a China-Africa inclusive development plan for e-commerce, hold online shopping festivals featuring quality African products and tourism e-commerce promotion activities, and launch a campaign to market a hundred African stores and a thousand African products on e-commerce platforms. The two sides will enhance policy communication and information sharing in digital economy, conduct capacity building cooperation, share experience on the use of e-commerce for poverty reduction, elevate digital capacity of SMEs, and share digital economy dividends.

3.8 Finance

3.8.1 China will continue to provide concessional loans and other financial support to African countries. Loans will be offered on a more concessional basis and innovative ways of financing will be explored, to support Africa’s infrastructure development, energy and resources development, agriculture, manufacturing and the comprehensive development of the whole industrial chain of Africa.

3.8.2 On the basis of observing multilateral rules and procedures, China will support African countries in making even better use of resources from the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the New Development Bank, the Silk Road Fund the China-Africa special fund for development financing and the special Loan for the Development of African SMEs, further broaden  and optimize financing channels for Africa, and support the development of African SMEs through accessible and affordable loans. China will provide 10 billion US dollars in credit line to African financial institutions and support the development of small and medium-sized African enterprises on a priority basis.

3.8.3 The two sides acknowledge the role of the China-Africa Financial Cooperation Consortium in promoting trade, production capacity cooperation and infrastructure development. The two sides encourage deeper cooperation between financial institutions, investment funds and multilateral financial institutions from both sides, to scale up support for China-Africa production capacity cooperation, support the industrialization of Africa and provide more diversified financing packages for African countries. The two sides call on more institutional investors who tend to make long-term investments such as insurance companies and sovereign wealth funds to give more attention to China-Africa cooperation projects.

3.8.4 China will deepen cooperation with regional and sub-regional development financial institutions including the African Development Bank, the African Export-Import Bank, the Eastern and Southern African Trade and Development Bank and the West African Development Bank, and make good use of joint financing facilities such as the Africa Growing Together Fund (AGTF), to support projects in areas of infrastructure, agricultural development and industrial cooperation.

3.8.5 China welcomes the issuance of panda bond by eligible African sovereign, multilateral and financial institutions in the Chinese bond market to contribute to diversifying the financing channels for African market entities. China will work for greater convenience for African countries who hold RMB as a reserve currency.

3.8.6 The two sides support the RMB offshore market development in Africa, and will encourage provision of custody bond service by Chinese commercial banks in Africa for local investors, and support those banks in bringing into full play their role as RMB clearing banks in Africa to meet the growing demands for the use of RMB in China-Africa trade and investment. China will establish a China-Africa cross-border RMB center, and welcomes African countries and financial institutions to issue RMB bonds in China.

3.8.7 The two sides will continue to encourage and support their financial institutions, in accordance with respective laws, regulations and prudential supervisory rules, in strengthening mutually beneficial cooperation through investment, joint ventures or other means, and providing diversified and inclusive financial services. The network of financial institutions and services of both sides will be improved to facilitate trade and investment.

3.8.8 The African side applauds China’s positive contribution to supporting African countries to address debt vulnerability through its full implementation of the G20 Debt Service Suspension Initiative (DSSI). China will observe the G20 agreement in its management of debt-related issues and provide support for African countries in difficulties. China and Africa urge other official bilateral creditors, commercial creditors, and multilateral development banks to take the same concrete action.

3.8.9 China encourages its financial institutions to, on the basis of market-oriented principles, make independent decisions on additional financing to African countries. China is ready to channel to African countries 10 billion US dollars from its share of the IMF’s new allocation of SDR. China calls on the IMF and the World Bank to take into account the new situation and reform their respective lending approval procedures in ways that are more adapted to the reality of African countries, so as to support more efficient access of African countries to development financing.

3.8.10 China will continue to enhance cooperation with African financial regulators in such fields as banknote printing and minting, and combating money laundering and financing of terrorism, to safeguard the stable and healthy operation and development of Chinese and African financial systems.

3.8.11 China notes with appreciation that the Africa Development Bank has become a major institution for the financing and implementation of Agenda 2063 of the AU and an important platform for policy coordination among African countries. China welcomes the efforts of international financial institutions including the Africa Development Bank to make active use of the Multilateral Cooperation Center for Development Finance (MCDF) to enhance information sharing, support early-stage project preparations and strengthen capacity building. China will encourage the China-IMF Capacity Development Center and IMF regional capacity development centers to play a bigger role in providing technical assistance for Africa.

4. Social Development Cooperation

4.1 Development Cooperation

4.1.1 The African side commends China for its long-standing commitment to development cooperation with Africa in the spirit of equality, mutual trust, mutual benefits, solidarity and mutual support, and provision of assistance to African countries and people to the best of its abilities without any political strings attached. Guided by the vision of a community with a shared future for mankind, China will continue to uphold justice while pursuing shared interests, increase assistance to African countries, LDCs in particular, and support African countries in achieving development benefiting their peoples with sustainable prosperity and welfare.

4.1.2 The African side applauds China’s efforts in supporting African countries to reduce poverty, improve people’s lives, expand employment, remove development bottlenecks and implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in ways of complete projects, provision of goods, technical cooperation, human resources development, setting up the Assistance Fund for South-South Cooperation and sending medical teams, among others. China will continue to share more of its development experience with Africa, further diversify cooperation methods, improve efficiency, carry out more livelihood-related projects, and support African countries in tapping into their growth potential to better realize Agenda 2063 of the AU.

4.1.3 China will, in light of the actual needs and conditions of the African side, continue to offer grants, interest-free loans and concessional loans to Africa. China calls for stronger actions by all relevant parties of the international community to ease the debt burden of African countries and effectively support them to achieve independent and sustainable development. China will exmpt African LDCs from debt incurred in the form of interest-free government loans  due by the end of 2021 for the least developed countries.

4.2 Medical Care and Public Health

4.2.1 China appreciates Africa’s support in various forms for China’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The African side commends China for taking the lead to provide Africa with anti-COVID-19 supplies and vaccines, starting ahead of schedule the construction of the Africa CDC headquarters, and sending medical expert teams to share experience in fighting the disease.

4.2.2 The two sides will continue to strengthen health exchanges at various levels, carry out regular policy dialogues and technological exchanges on health, so as to build a China-Africa community of health for all. Both sides will continue to hold the Ministerial Forum on China-Africa Health Cooperation as a sub-forum under the FOCAC framework.

4.2.3 China will continue to scale up medical assistance to African countries and step up cooperation with Africa on COVID-19 prevention and control. China will support African countries in building national public health institutions, and will carry out information sharing and technical cooperation on public health, and support Africa in comprehensively improving its health situation, strengthen its capacity for self-reliant development, and build a more responsive public health system. China will provide African countries with technical support for strengthening health-related capacities under the International Health Regulations (2005), and jointly safeguard global public health security.

4.2.4 In light of Africa’s COVID-19 situation and its lack of access to COVID-19 vaccines, China commits to supply vaccines to Africa through bilateral and multilateral channels, including the Africa Vaccine Acquisition Task Team (AVATT)  over the next three years and support African countries to improve their vaccine production, storage and delivery capacities. China will provide another one billion doses of vaccines to Africa, including 600 million doses as donation and 400 million doses to be provided through such means as joint production by Chinese companies and relevant African countries. Africa welcomes China’s support to the waiver of intellectual property rights of their COVID-19 vaccines and encourages others to do so.

4.2.5 China and Africa will increase cooperation on strengthening the capacities of local drug production including the development of the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry and the improvement of medical products regulatory systems. China will help accelerate the establishment of the African Medicines Agency (AMA) and support the African Medicines Regulation and Harmonization (AMRH) program to improve the effectiveness of the medical products regulatory systems.

4.2.6 China will complete the construction of the Africa CDC headquarters, undertake 10 medical and health assistance projects for African countries, and speed up the building of China-Africa Friendship Hospitals. China supports African hospitals in developing specialized departments, cultivating more health professionals, improving hospital facilities and carrying out all-round academic and technical exchanges and cooperation in the areas of medical teaching and research. China supports African countries in improving health services and hospital management.

4.2.7 In support of the Catalytic Framework to End AIDS, TB and Eliminate Malaria in Africa by 2030, China will continue to carry out anti-malaria projects and share anti-malaria success experience with African countries, and to reach the goal of global malaria control and elimination program with the international community. China will assist Africa to halt and reverse the double burden of communicable (HIV, TB, Malaria and Schistosomiasis) and non-communicable (cancer and cardiovascular diseases) diseases through enhanced bilateral and multilateral collaboration, sharing of best practices and support to identified priority program. China will help Africa reduce the maternal and infant mortality rates, improve the survival and health of pregnant and postnatal women and newborns, and support African countries in meeting the UN SDGs at an early date.

4.2.8 China will use the Belt and Road Demonstration and Training Platform on Health Cooperation to share its best practices and appropriate technologies in such areas as maternal and infant health, public health, hospital management and screening exams through online and offline exchanges and training, so as to support African countries to enhance the service capacity of their health systems, make basic health services more accessible, and promote the realization of full health coverage of the African people.

4.2.9 The two sides will enhance cooperation on drug supervision, support Africa’s efforts to improve its public health testing capabilities, and encourage Chinese enterprises to cooperate with African countries in such areas as COVID-19 testing and setting up testing centers.

4.2.10 China encourages and supports Chinese enterprises’ medical and pharmaceutical cooperation with Africa, supports the two sides’ cooperation in traditional medicine, encourages traditional medicine to be included into the prevention and treatment of major infectious diseases including COVID-19 and malaria.

4.2.11 China will send 1,500 medical personnel and public health experts to Africa, continue to provide mobile medical services for the treatment of cataract and heart disease, and build a training platform for China-Africa health cooperation.

4.3 Education and Human Resources

4.3.1  Africa commends China’s support in providing qualitative education for Africans through government scholarships and trainings. China and Africa will deepen their cooperation in capacity building; promote technology transfer; enhance technical training for youth, especially for specialized personnel.

4.3.2 The African side highly commends Luban Workshops and other vocational training programs launched by China in Africa, and appreciates China’s support in such areas as materials and equipment, technical guidance, teaching workforce and personnel training. The two sides will expand cooperation in such areas as employment, vocational training and social security, implement the “Future of Africa” China-Africa Vocational Education Cooperation Plan, start an “Employment Through Train” scheme for African students in China, and hold a China-Africa Education Ministers’ Forum. China will continue to provide short-term seminars and training opportunities to African countries, continue to work with African countries to set up “Luban Workshops”, and encourage and support the efforts of Chinese enterprises to carry out vocational training in African countries. China will encourage Chinese companies in Africa to offer at least 800,000 local jobs.

4.3.3 China will implement a plan for cultivating talents for China and Africa in the post-COVID era, build or upgrade 10 schools in Africa, and invite 10,000 high-level African professionals to seminars and workshops.

4.3.4 Under the  Chinese government scholarship programs, China will continue to train professionals in relevant fields. The two sides will actively explore setting up a China-Africa joint R&D center or lab for road engineering.

4.3.5 The two sides will make joint efforts to further improve training  programs with the view to align the programs to current developmental priorities  of African countries.

4.3.6 China and Africa will foster new projects on capacity building in poverty reduction, rural revitalization, lCT, fintech, digital economy, e-commerce, cloud computing, big data and cyberspace security in order to leverage relevant impact on the high potential growth of these sectors in Africa, with a special emphasis on womens’ participation.

4.3.7 The two sides will continue to support the development of Confucius Institutes and Classrooms in Africa. China welcomes the inclusion of the Chinese language into African countries’ national curriculum, and will further support Chinese language teaching in Africa through various ways. China will further provide teaching and training of African languages in China, and nurture more professionals who are fluent in African languages.

4.3.8 Phase III of the UNESCO-China Funds-in-Trust has been successfully launched and made notable achievements. The two sides will continue to implement the project and will consider extending it for another 4 years (2023-2026).

4.3.9 China will work with Africa to launch experts exchange programs and joint research projects on R&D cooperation; software development; policy planning, monitoring and evaluation. The two sides will design new models of training in designated African countries and maximize their effect in the end user socio- economic contexts.

4.4 Cooperation and Exchanges on Poverty Reduction and Rural Development

4.4.1 The African side highly commends China’s historic achievements in eliminating absolute poverty. China will work with Africa to actively build a poverty reduction and development partner alliance, and rally the extensive participation of Chinese and African businesses, social organizations, research institutes and other parties in China-Africa cooperation on poverty reduction and rural development. The two sides will work to gradually establish multi-tiered dialogue mechanisms for poverty reduction and rural development between the two governments and societies.

4.4.2 China will continue to support the poverty reduction and rural development efforts of Africa to help deliver a better and happier life to African people. China will undertake 10 poverty reduction and agricultural assistance projects for Africa, encourage Chinese institutions and companies to build in Africa demonstration villages for China-Africa cooperation on agricultural development and poverty reduction, support the Alliance of Chinese Companies in Africa for Corporate Social Responsibilities in launching the initiative of “a Hundred Companies in a Thousand Villages” and actively carry out poverty alleviation cooperation for public benefit.

4.4.3 China will continue to organize activities such as the China-Africa Poverty Reduction and Development Conference and the China-Africa Youth Exchange Program on Poverty Reduction and Development, and will continue to organize workshops on policies on poverty reduction and rural development tailored to the needs of African countries.

4.5 Science and Technology Cooperation and Knowledge Sharing

4.5.1 The two sides will enhance synergy between strategies and policies on scientific and technological innovation, jointly implement the Belt and Road Science, Technology and Innovation Cooperation Action Plan and the China-Africa Science and Technology Partnership Program 2.0, promote cooperation on technology-supported poverty reduction, and fully leverage scientific and technological innovation to underpin and guide the sustainable economic and social development of China and Africa.

4.5.2 The two sides will jointly build a multi-tiered system for scientific, technological and people-to-people exchanges. China welcomes the participation of African scientific professionals in the “International Outstanding Young Scientists Exchange Program” and the “Innovative Talent Exchange Project”. China will carry out the “Africa Young Scientists in China” Program and provide African countries with training on readily applicable technology and science management.

4.5.3 The two sides will use the China-Africa Innovation Cooperation Center in Wuhan to jointly carry out cooperation activities on technology transfer and innovation and entrepreneurship. Both sides support young Chinese and Africans in sharing innovation outcomes and promoting mutual development.

4.5.4 The two sides will make full use of the China-Africa Joint Research Center, and support this platform in playing a continued exemplary role in such areas as modern agriculture, biodiversity, eco-environmental protection, and public health.

4.5.5 The two sides acknowledge that in today’s world, aerospace is one of the most important high-tech sector. The two sides will enhance cooperation on space technology, promote Africa’s space technology application and infrastructure development, and use the space industry to drive social development and improve people’s living standards.

4.5.6 The AU and the China National Space Administration will jointly explore and release the White Paper on China-Africa Space Cooperation to identify key areas and directions for cooperation. China will use space technology to enhance cooperation with African countries in such areas as scientific and technological development, poverty and hunger elimination, promotion of social security, disaster prevention and relief, climate change, and eco-environmental protection.

4.5.7 The two sides will actively work for the establishment of a sub-forum on China-Africa space cooperation under the FOCAC framework. Both sides will focus on supporting projects concerning satellite remote sensing, communications satellite and space city building, in an effort to drive the development of the space industry of African countries. China will set up centers for China-Africa cooperation on satellite remote sensing application.

4.5.8 China will train specialized aerospace professionals for African countries, and promote aerospace capacity building of African countries. The two sides will fully leverage the role of the UN-affiliated Regional Centers for Space Science and Technology Education in China, Nigeria and Morocco, as well as African Union Space Agency headquartered in Egypt and make good use of the Belt and Road Aerospace Innovation Alliance to promote exchanges and cooperation between Chinese and African universities, work to build a regional development center of the Belt and Road Aerospace Innovation Alliance in Africa, and contribute to the training and education of aerospace professionals in Africa.

4.5.9 The two sides support the CubeSat Middle School Student Science Project. The two sides will set up a China-Africa youth space alliance as a platform for space exchanges between Chinese and African middle school students, and explore new ways of science popularization in China-Africa space cooperation, so as to lay the foundation for realizing the development vision of emerging space countries in Africa.

4.5.10 The two sides will enhance communication and cooperation on platforms such as the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space to jointly promote international space cooperation and global space governance that are fair and reasonable and take into account the special needs of developing countries.

4.5.11 The two sides acknowledge that nuclear technologies play an important role in economic and social development. China will continue to leverage the Chinese Government Atomic Energy Scholarship Program and existing cooperation platforms between the two sides to continue to deepen mutually beneficial cooperation between China and Africa in such areas as nuclear science research, nuclear personnel training, nuclear technology application and nuclear power project development, and jointly tackle challenges including climate change, energy supply, food security, health, and protection of water resources.

4.6 Cyber Security Cooperation

4.6.1 The African side shares the vision of a community with a shared future in cyberspace put forward by China, and supports the Initiative on Jointly Building a Community with a Shared Future in Cyberspace. Africa takes due note of and will further positively consider the Global Initiative on Data Security launched by China. We stand ready to build on this Initiative to advance the formulation of global digital governance rules, and call on the international community to jointly build a peaceful, secure, open, cooperative and orderly cyberspace and a community with a shared future in cyberspace.

4.6.2 The two sides are fully aware of the strategic impact of data as a key factor in economic and social development, and encourage businesses to cooperate in such areas as development and utilization of data security products, data governance and personal privacy protection. Businesses are required to respect local laws and not to use their products or services to illegally obtain user data. Both sides oppose using information technology to carry out large-scale surveillance against other countries. China will work with African countries in the spirit of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits to promote data security.

4.6.3 China will actively support Africa’s capacity building on cyber security and work with Africa to carry out activities such as seminars and training on cyber security emergency response, so as to enhance Africa’s preparedness and coordination in the event of cyber security incidents.

4.6.4 The two sides will jointly expand practical cooperation in the internet domain, strengthen dialogue and exchanges on internet laws and regulations, continue to increase common understandings and mutual trust concerning the rule of law, and jointly work for the improvement and development of relevant legal systems.

4.6.5 The two sides acknowledge that cyber crime is a common challenge facing all countries and that the United Nations should continue to play an important role in facilitating international cooperation on combating cyber crime. The two sides support the work of the UN Ad Hoc Committee to Elaborate a Comprehensive International Convention on Countering the Use of ICTs for Criminal Purposes and will work to conclude a universal and authoritative international legal instrument at an early date.

5. Cultural and People-to-People Exchanges

5.1 Tourism

5.1.1 China will continue to advance tourism cooperation with Africa, and will support making all African countries having diplomatic ties with China as approved destinations for Chinese tourist groups to contribute to the revitalization of Africa’s tourism industry. Africa supports China’s participation in the international tourism exhibitions organized by Africa. China welcomes more African countries to participate in large international tourism exhibitions such as the China International Travel Mart, and will hold seminars on China-Africa tourism cooperation, with a view to building platforms for experience sharing, products promotion and business negotiations. China will increasingly spotlight Africa on Chinese media.

5.1.2 China will carry out the China-African Culture and Tourism Training Cooperation Plan in both online and offline formats, continue to advance human resources training for Africa, and assist Africa in strengthening capacity building for tourism.

5.1.3 The two sides encourage governments to carry out exchanges and cooperation on tourism, increase mutual visits, and step up the sharing of information and experience regarding tourism development through various channels. The two sides will work to resume development of the tourism industry after COVID-19 and both sides commit to the holding of an annual African travel fair in China with a view to promoting Destination Africa to the Chinese tourists.

5.1.4 . China will encourage more Chinese nationals to travel to Africa, and Africa will provide more suitable tourism products and a safer tourism environment.

5.2 Culture

5.2.1 The two sides are committed to advancing China-Africa cultural exchanges and mutual learning, with a view to contributing to equal-footed dialogue among civilizations, cultural diversity in the world, and peace and development of mankind. Both sides encourage and support dialogues on culture and thinking between the two sides and will promote exchanges and cooperation between Chinese and African research institutes.

5.2.2 The two sides will maintain the momentum of government visits and dialogues and implement plans of intergovernmental cultural agreements. Both sides will step up sub-national exchanges and build cultural exchanges and cooperation mechanisms through sister cities. Both sides will promote people-to-people exchanges and cooperation between China and Africa, and develop flagship exchange programs.

5.2.3 China will continue to carry out flagship exchange activities such as the Happy Spring Festival and the China-Africa Cultural Focus, support mutual visits of Chinese and African art troupes and organizations, and take part in international art festivals held in China and Africa.

5.2.4 The two sides encourage the strengthening of cultural exchanges and cooperation under the framework of Belt and Road cooperation, as a way to enhance the bond between Chinese and African people. China welcomes African cultural institutions’ participation in cooperation mechanisms such as the Silk Road International League of Theaters, the Silk Road International Museum Alliance, the Network of Silk Road Art Festivals, the Silk Road International Library Alliance and the Silk Road International Art Museum and Gallery Alliance, and their visits to China for activities such as the Silk Road International Arts Festival, the Maritime Silk Road International Arts Festival and the Silk Road (Dunhuang) International Culture Expo, with a view to jointly creating flagship exchange activities such as the Silk Road Cultural Tour.

5.2.5 The two sides will continue to explore cooperation in the cultural industry, and encourage and support the efforts of governments and business communities to step up exchanges and cooperation in the cultural industry and trade.

5.2.6 The two sides will continue to open more culture centers in China and Africa, and build more permanent platforms for the sustainable development of cultural exchanges and cooperation between China and Africa.

5.2.7 The two sides will encourage and support cultural heritage exchanges and cooperation including joint archaeological studies, protection and restoration of historical sites, museum exhibitions, world cultural heritage, personnel training and capacity building. Both sides will encourage and support joint efforts in combating illegal cultural property trade through information sharing, personnel training and other means, and facilitate the return of stolen or illegally excavated or traded cultural property to the country of origin.

5.3 Press and Media

5.3.1 The two sides will actively promote exchanges and cooperation in the field of press and publication, and continue to strengthen publication cooperation in the areas of education, agriculture, culture, ecology, health care, children’s books and on other related themes. Through co-production of programs and mutual visits of media personnel, both sides will actively introduce development and changes in the economic, cultural, social and other fields in China and Africa, so as to promote mutual understanding and enhance the bond between the people.

5.3.2 China will continue to strengthen exchanges of film and TV programs, hold African film festivals in China and Chinese film festivals in Africa, and support introducing more African film and TV programs into China.

5.3.3 China will continue to implement training and capacity building programs for African media practitioners, help African countries train high-caliber professionals in news, broadcasting and television, and tourism, hold in due course training and capacity building seminars for African countries’ media officials and journalists, promote more exchanges between Chinese and African media personnel, support the capacity building of radio and television media in Africa, promote the integrated development of African media, and advance practical media cooperation between China and Africa.

5.4 Academia and Think Tanks

5.4.1 The two sides believe that the upgraded China-Africa Joint Research and Exchange Plan has effectively strengthened cooperation and exchanges between Chinese and African scholars and think tanks, and provided strong academic support to China-Africa cooperation. China will further increase support to help African universities and think tanks hold seminars and carry out research projects, continue to implement the China-Africa University 20+20 Cooperation Plan and the China-Africa Think Tank 10+10 Partnership Plan, and strengthen joint research and exchanges between Chinese and African think tanks.

5.4.2 The two sides will continue to hold the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum, support long-term, stable cooperation between Chinese and African academic communities, encourage the Forum and relevant institutions to conduct joint researches, and provide intellectual support to China-Africa cooperation.

5.4.3 The two sides will continue to make good use of the China-Africa Institute to enhance mutual learning between civilizations. The two sides welcome and encourage their businesses and financial and academic institutions to provide support for academic, people-to-people and cultural exchanges between China and Africa.

5.4.4 The two sides will continue to support the development of the Belt and Road African Studies Alliance, conduct cooperation on scientific research digitization, strengthen cooperation on theoretical innovation and decision-making research, promote academic exchanges and the commercialization of scientific research results, and advance exchanges and mutual learning of development experience.

5.5 Sub-national and People-to-People Exchanges

5.5.1 China will encourage sub-national and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to utilize existing resources and strengths, taking into account the circumstances of different fields, countries and projects, actively participate in practical cooperation with Africa, gradually achieve the diversification of cooperation models, and further enhance the comprehensive effect of practical cooperation with Africa.

5.5.2 The two sides value the positive role of the China-Africa People’s Forum in enhancing people-to-people exchanges, friendship between the two peoples and cooperation concerning people’s livelihood, and encourage and support more practical exchanges and cooperation between Chinese and African NGOs on people’s well-being.

5.5.3 China welcomes African Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to join the Silk Road NGO Cooperation Network and the Silk Road Community Building Initiative, step up people-to-people exchanges and livelihood cooperation, and contribute to stronger people-to-people connectivity between China and Africa under the Belt and Road Initiative.

5.5.4 The two sides attach importance to tapping into the role of the China-Africa Friendship Organization Leaders Meeting, and will further promote practical exchanges between Chinese and African friendship organizations.

5.5.5 Both Sides welcome the increased people-to-people exchanges through trade and recommend the strengthening of these contacts. China and Africa would like to cement the popular support of Sino-African friendship through the commemoration of the anniversary of FOCAC.

5.5.6 The two sides encourage their labor unions to continue to deepen exchanges and advance cooperation through means including video conference, material assistance, information sharing, mutual visits, seminars and personnel training.

5.5.7 China and Africa will support cooperation and exchanges in the field of sports and strengthen partnership in supporting their mutual events.

5.6 Youth and Women

5.6.1 The two sides encourage and support cooperation and exchanges in the field of youth, and will continue to promote volunteering and youth development programs. The two sides take note of the success of the first China-Africa Future Leaders Dialogue, which has served as a platform for in-depth dialogue between Chinese and African youth. The two sides support holding the event on a regular basis.

5.6.2 China will hold a China-Africa youth services forum, and a China-Africa women’s forum. The two sides will continue to advance the building of the China-Africa Young Leaders Forum and other mechanisms, and deepen exchanges and cooperation between Chinese and African young leaders.

5.6.3 The two sides will strengthen exchanges and cooperation in gender equality and women empowerment, and encourage and support high-level woman’s dialogue, seminars, capacity building and exchanges among women entrepreneurs. The two sides will continue to deepen practical cooperation in women-related issues between China and Africa, carry out a batch of small-sized material assistance and skills training programs in this field, support women to emerge from the impact of COVID-19, and jointly promote well-rounded development of women and girls .

5.6.4 China will continue to enhance exchanges and cooperation with Africa in the area of people with disabilities, and jointly conduct practical cooperation programs in such areas as rehabilitation, education and employment.

5.6.5 China will hold workshops for women from African political parties and arrange for female foreign diplomats to visit different parts of China to further strengthen dialogue and cooperation with women officials in African countries.

6. Peace and Security Cooperation

6.1 Military, Police, Counter-terrorism and Law Enforcement

6.1.1 China and Africa underscore that peace and security in Africa remains an important part of their cooperation, and the two sides will continue to strengthen the implementation of the China-Africa peace and security plan; support the building of the African Peace and Security Architecture, the African Standby Force as well as bolster Africa’s capacity to rapidly respond to crises. The two sides will lay emphasis on defense military capabilities, actively conduct exchanges and cooperation in such fields as military education, military training, military medicine, logistics support, and maritime security, and hold exchanges and dialogues on military medicine.

6.1.2 Both sides will enhance cooperation under the framework of the UN, actively participate in UN peacekeeping missions in Africa, strengthen exchanges on peacekeeping policies and skills, and support Africa’s capacity building for independent peacekeeping missions.

6.1.3 China and Africa will continue o support African capacity building, and advance the implementation of new measures for the China-Africa Peace and Security Plan, to fill the gap between the mandate and the capacities of African forces. China will undertake 10 peace and security assistance projects for Africa, continue to deliver military assistance to the African Union, support African countries’ efforts to independently maintain regional security and fight terrorism, and conduct joint exercises and on-site training between Chinese and African peacekeeping troops and cooperation on small arms and light weapons control.

6.1.4 ln the spirit of the outcomes of the “China-Africa Dialogue on Peace and Security” held in Addis-Ababa in February 2019, both sides will continue to hold  ”China Africa Forum on Peace and Security” to strengthen exchanges in Peace and security issues. While continuing the training of African defense officers in China, the two sides will discuss the possibility of designing training sessions in Africa. The two sides will enhance communication and coordination at the UN Security Council, and step up mutual support for the implementation of the “Silencing the Guns ” to eradicate conflict in Africa and support the Africa Peace and Security Framework.

6.1.5 China will work with Africa to establish a China-Africa police cooperation mechanism, and deepen law-enforcement capacity building, security cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative, and cooperation on small arms and light weapons control. China and Africa will further strengthen exchanges between police personnel at various levels and encourage local police departments of the two sides to establish cooperative relations and strengthen experience sharing and cooperation in combating crimes, capacity building and other areas.

6.1.6 The two sides will deepen counter-terrorism cooperation, strengthen intelligence sharing, investigation collaboration and coordination of actions in cracking down on international terrorist organizations. The two sides will strengthen practical cooperation in areas including combating crimes that infringe upon the safety of life, COVID-related crimes, smuggling and trafficking of wildlife, narcotics control, cyber security, community policing, fugitives’ repatriation and asset recovery.

6.1.7 China will continue to provide law-enforcement training programs according to the needs of African police departments, and will continue to provide police equipment assistance to African police departments to the best of its abilities.

6.1.8 China will strengthen cooperation with African Union Mechanism for Police   Cooperation (Afripol) The two sides agree to coordinate positions and actions, step up intelligence sharing and investigation collaboration under the framework of Interpol, regional cooperation mechanisms and bilateral arrangements.

6.1.9 China and Africa agree to mutually support and promote more police training, including of women, through formalized engagement with the Afripol.

6.1.10 China and Africa commit to cooperating in combating illegal transfer and abuse of small arms, light weapons and ammunition, and would like to engage in exchanges of policy and experience,and pragmatic cooperation in identifying, tracing and the management of end users of small arms,light weapons and ammunition. .

6.2 Anti-corruption, Consular Affairs, Immigration and Judiciary

6.2.1 The two sides will step up anti-corruption cooperation, make full use of the UN Convention against Corruption and other existing international legal instruments for cooperation on a case-by-case basis in fugitive’s repatriation and asset recovery, and will be more flexible in such cooperation within the extent of domestic laws.

6.2.2 The two sides will continue to exchange high-level visits between competent anti-corruption authorities, strengthen exchanges and cooperation in judicial, law enforcement and legislative areas, improve cooperation mechanisms for extradition, legal assistance and asset recovery, and accelerate the signing of extradition treaties, treaties on mutual legal assistance in criminal matters and other relevant agreements.

6.2.3 The two sides will strengthen coordination and cooperation under the UN and other multilateral and bilateral mechanisms, work together to advocate a new global order in anti-corruption, and call for stronger actions by the international community to forestall and fight corruption.

6.2.4 The two sides will step up consular cooperation and exchanges, and further facilitate personnel, business and student exchanges in the post- COVID era. China and Africa will work together to strengthen the welfare and protections of their nationals and properties in each other’s countries. Both sides agree, on a reciprocal basis, to streamline visa application formalities for business people.

6.2.5 The two sides will continue to strengthen exchanges and cooperation in law-based governance, enhance mutual trust and exchanges in this respect, provide legal support and guarantee for Belt and Road international cooperation, and work together to improve the existing international legal system.

6.2.6 The two sides will continue to improve the mechanism of the FOCAC Law-based Governance Forum, and increase its influence and efficacy. China will strengthen legal exchanges and coordination with regional and sub-regional organizations in Africa. The two sides will hold the Conference on Legal Risks and Countermeasures of International Investment and Trade, promote the establishment of a legal research platform for African laws, and increase support for the exchange program of legal personnel between China and Africa. The two sides will continue to improve the China-Africa joint arbitration mechanism, and promote the development of the China-Africa Joint Arbitration Center and enhance its international influence.

6.2.7 The two sides will support holding a China-Africa Forum of Law School Deans, encourage and assist Chinese and African universities in jointly building China-Africa legal research centers and training bases for legal professionals, and increase research on legal systems related to cooperation between China and Africa on the Belt and Road Initiative as well as on digital economy, smart cities, clean energy, 5G and other new business forms.

7. Green Development

7.1 Ecological Protection and Climate Response

7.1.1 The two sides are both committed to establishing and improving an economic system for green, low-carbon and circular development, actively participating in global environmental governance, and jointly tackling climate change. The two sides will continue to strengthen exchanges and cooperation on ecological protection, maritime cooperation, desertification prevention and treatment, and the protection of wildlife.

7.1.2 The two sides will support tapping into the role of the China-Africa Environmental Cooperation Center, and advance environmental cooperation through, among others, more policy exchanges and dialogue, closer exchanges and cooperation on environmental industry and technological information, and joint research on environmental issues. China will establish a China-Africa marine science and blue economy cooperation center.

7.1.3 China will undertake 10 green development, environmental protection and climate action assistance projects for Africa, and support the development of the Great Green Wall.

7.1.4 China will work with Africa to continue to implement the China-Africa Green Envoys Program, the China-Africa Green Innovation Program and others, build low-carbon demonstration zones and climate adaptation demonstration zones in Africa, set up a China-Africa geoscience cooperation center, establish capacity building partnerships in such areas as climate response, biodiversity conservation, pollution prevention and control, and sustainable infrastructure, and help ensure that the outcomes of China-Africa cooperation on green and low-carbon development benefit the lives of people in the region.

7.1.5 China will continue to deepen practical cooperation with African countries under the framework of South-South cooperation on climate change and the Belt and Road Initiative as well as support African countries to strengthen climate change response so that the two sides can jointly tackle the global challenge of climate change. China supports the African Agriculture Adaptation (AAA) and Sustainability Stability and Security (SSS) initiatives.

7.1.6 The two sides will carry out in-depth cooperation on the application of satellite remote-sensing technology in the field of natural resources. China will propose satellite remote-sensing Cloud services to more African countries.

7.1.7 The two sides will enhance cooperation on wildlife protection and support improving protection capacity of African countries. The two sides will strengthen capacity building of wildlife conservation professionals, and explore cooperation on wildlife protection demonstration projects. The two sides will work to raise public awareness, jointly combat illegal trade of wildlife, and incentivize those who have made outstanding contributions in anti-poaching and combating the illegal trade of wildlife. The two sides will establish an anti-smuggling cooperation mechanism to crack down on the crimes of smuggling endangered wildlife and their products.

7.1.8 The two sides will continue cooperation on desertification prevention and treatment. China will, according to the needs of Africa, strengthen mutual learning with Africa through means including expert exchanges and field demonstrations, so as to jointly improve the level of desertification prevention and treatment. China will continue to deepen cooperation with Sub-Saharan African countries in prevention and control of damage related to desertification and industrial development.

7.1.9 The two sides will continue to advance the building of the China-Africa Bamboo Center and actively support Africa’s capacity building in the sustainable management of bamboo and rattan resources, the innovative development of bamboo and rattan industries, the development of their products and poverty alleviation, and relevant industrial policy and standardization. The two sides will work to carry out international bamboo and rattan demonstration projects and improve Africa’s ability to utilize rattan and bamboo resources in a sustainable way and to develop modern bamboo and rattan industries.

7.1.10 The two sides will establish green protected areas and engage in cooperation on their preservation, improve management capacities of both sides, conduct cooperation and exchanges on the protection and restoration of wetlands, hold training seminars, and strive to jointly carry out wetland protection and restoration projects in Africa.

7.1.11 Africa and China welcome the Dakar Declaration on China- Africa Cooperation on Combating Climate Change and support its effective implementation. Both sides propose also that African countries benefit from the Kunming Biodiversity Fund.

7.2 Maritime Cooperation

7.2.1 The two sides recognize the enormous potential of maritime economic cooperation and will continue to jointly promote mutually beneficial cooperation in this field.

7.2.2 China will continue to provide funding and technical support under the framework of technical cooperation of the International Maritime Organization, and support African countries to train shipping professionals and strengthen capacity-building to promote the sustainable development of maritime shipping.

7.2.3 The two sides will strengthen exchanges and cooperation between sea ports. China will provide technical assistance and support for relevant plans for the marine industry of African countries, support African countries in advancing IT development and application in African sea ports, and step up cooperation with Africa on blue economy.

7.2.4 China will, under the principle of sincerity, equality, mutual benefit and win-win results, carry out cooperation with African countries in such fields as maritime scientific research, ocean observation and monitoring, marine eco-environmental protection, and Antarctic research and logistics support, advance the building of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, and make positive contributions to global marine governance.

7.2.5 The two sides will continue to strengthen cooperation and exchanges on, among others, offshore aquaculture, maritime transportation, shipbuilding and repair, offshore wind power, maritime information services and maritime security.

7.2.6 China supports Africa in enhancing capacity building in maritime law-enforcement and environmental protection, improving management capacity for marine fisheries, and ensuring a sound security environment for the development of and cooperation on marine resources. The two sides will promote the establishment of an information exchange mechanism, enhance information communication and exchange, and jointly combat illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU).

7.3 Cooperation on Energy and Natural Resources

7.3.1 China will work with Africa to enhance practical cooperation in the energy sector under the framework of the China-African Union Energy Partnership, jointly improve the level of electrification in Africa, increase the share of clean energy, address step by step the issue of energy accessibility, and promote sustainable energy development of both sides. China has announced that it will not build new coal-fired power projects abroad, and will step up support for other developing countries including African countries in developing green and low-carbon energy, and encourage Chinese businesses to conduct cooperation with African countries in the areas of clean energy and renewable energy.

7.3.2 The two sides will actively carry out cooperation on capacity building in the energy sector. China will provide professional training for personnel from competent authorities, research institutions and key companies of relevant countries to improve African countries’ capacity in developing and managing their own energy systems. China will soon dispatch technical teams to the AU in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding on the China-African Union Energy Partnership and other relevant documents.

7.3.3 The two sides will continue to strengthen policy dialogue and technological exchanges in the energy sector, synergize each other’s energy development strategies and conduct joint research.

7.3.4 The two sides will continue to strengthen cooperation on trade, investment, technology and standards in the energy and resources sector, and encourage and support establishment of strategic partnerships by Chinese and African businesses under the principle of mutual benefits and win-win results, their engagement in investment, development and operation of energy and resources projects, and their exploration of green and sustainable ways of cooperation, including in green hydrogen development.

7.3.5 China will support Africa in improving the structure of its energy and resources industrial chain, improving its capacity to process energy and resources products, increasing the added value of products, and upgrading its energy and resources industrial chain toward greener development.

7.3.6 The two sides will closely align their development plans in such fields as sustainable use of energy and resources, improving land and space spanning, and innovation in geoscience, and improve their ability to develop and manage their own energy and resources systems.

7.3.7 The two sides will strengthen cooperation in the field of water conservancy. China will support Africa in formulating water resources planning, integrated river basin planning and other professional plans, improving water management and water conservancy infrastructure, enhancing the ability of water conservancy in supporting economic and social sustainable development, and advancing the implementation of the water-related goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

7.3.8 The two sides encourage technological exchanges, personnel training and project cooperation in such fields as water resources allocation, soil and water conservation, water ecological restoration, flood preparedness and disaster relief, water-saving irrigation, rural drinking water, rainwater collection and utilization, small-scale hydro-power development, sediment research and remote sensing applications.

7.3.9 The two sides will strengthen cooperation in the photovoltaic industry, support dialogue and exchanges between photovoltaic industry associations and other organizations of the two sides, encourage in-depth cooperation between their businesses, research institutions and investment institutions, jointly advance green energy applications that will drive the development of the photovoltaic industry, and further promote mutual recognition of relevant industry standards and testing certifications.

8. Experience Sharing on State Governance

8.1 Political parties of China and Africa will share with each other party building experience through exchanges and dialogue in various forms and at various levels. The National People’s Congress of China and the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference will enhance experience sharing on state governance with, among others, parliaments of African countries, the Pan-African Parliament and the African Parliamentary Union.

8.2 China will share experience with Africa on economic development, and strengthen exchanges with Africa in such areas as the reform and development of state-owned enterprises, competition policies, efforts against monopoly and unfair competition, customs facilitation, law enforcement and capacity building.

8.3 The two sides will continue to enhance experience sharing on poverty reduction, education, employment, health, agriculture and other areas by establishing dialogue mechanisms at various levels for poverty reduction and rural development and holding events including the FOCAC Meeting on Poverty Reduction and Development, the China-Africa Youth Exchange Program on Poverty Reduction and Rural Development, the China-Africa Ministerial Meeting on Health Cooperation and Development and the China-Africa Agriculture Forum.

8.4 The two sides are committed to advancing exchanges and mutual learning between civilizations and cultures, encouraging and supporting cultural dialogue, strengthening exchanges and cooperation between institutions in academic research, press and publishing, film and television production and other fields, stepping up exchanges and mutual visits of youth, and further enhancing experience sharing on gender equality and women empowerment.

8.5 The two sides will continue to strengthen policy dialogue, exchanges and cooperation in such fields as ecological protection, maritime cooperation, desertification prevention and treatment, wildlife protection and energy development strategy, and enhance environmental policy exchanges and dialogue and conduct joint research through platforms including the China-Africa Environmental Cooperation Center.

8.6 China will strengthen exchanges with African countries on peacekeeping policy and skills under the framework of the UN, expand exchanges and training cooperation between defence and military personnel, deepen counter-terrorism cooperation, and step up intelligence sharing on combating international terrorist organizations.

9. FOCAC Institutional Development

9.1 The two sides are satisfied to see the efficient and smooth operation of the Coordinator’s Meeting on the Implementation of the Follow-up Actions of the 2018 FOCAC Beijing Summit, the Senior Officials Meetings (SOMs), and consultations between the Chinese Follow-up Committee of FOCAC and the African diplomatic corps in China since the FOCAC Beijing Summit.

9.2 The two sides will continue to leverage the role of existing sub-forums under FOCAC, and jointly advance the establishment or institutionalization of new sub-forums to substantiate FOCAC and China-Africa cooperation across all areas, including  the considerations of other frameworks to strengthen FOCAC in due course.

9.3 In accordance with the procedures of the FOCAC follow-up mechanism, the two sides decide to hold the 9th Ministerial Conference in People’s Republic of China in 2024 and, before that, the 16th and 17th SOMs respectively in 2023 and 2024.